Lecture – 12 Data Modeling – ER Diagrams, Mapping -Transcript

So the first process which handles this data is the make reservation process. Now if you look at this process, this process not only takes this input but it takes another input from a data source called flight database. This arrow, the direction of arrow indicates that the data is being taken by the process as the input of data. So we take two inputs here. One is from the traveler about his time, data and destination. The other is the flight database, and then we prepare a suitable reservation. The reservation is also recorded. We may have to consult the existing bookings and see whether there is a space available. And if available, we make a reservation.

After making the reservation, this process produces outputs for two other processes. So one output goes from make reservation to a process called prepare ticket. Now ideally we should be labeling all these arrows. The label of the arrow will indicate the data which is sent by make reservation to the prepare ticket. But from the context we can easily make out that in order to prepare the ticket we will have to obtain traveler’s data as well as the flight data so that a ticket can be made. And the ticket is an output of this process. The ticket goes to the traveler. So this is a physical output produced by our software for the traveler.

Then there is another process to which the make reservation process supplies some output and that process is the billing system. Again we can really see that billing system must receive some inputs from make reservation so that the cost of the journey or the cost of the ticket can be calculated. And this billing system will produce a bill for the traveler and will also note that in the accounting file. Subsequently the billing system will also handle the payment from the traveler.

So in this airline reservation we have defined three processes called make reservation, prepare ticket and billing system. We have identified one external entity who is the user of this software or this application. And we have identified the data stores. These data stores contain the data relevant to the application. So these data may be related to the flights. The data may be related to the customer himself so that we can keep the billing information for him and also the data about the bookings that we have been – we have made. So airline reservation system would consist of such processes.

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So you see here that the data flow diagram can be read in terms of external entities, the data that they supply or the results that they receive. And we can — through the names that we’ve selected for these processes we can try to understand what happens in this application. So it’s — again the naming is very important. We name the bubbles as well as the data sources properly, and when we do that, a data flow diagram can be understood easily without any additional explanation from the analysts. This is the advantage of the data flow diagrams. They are understandable on their own.

Now when we start the designing or developing the data flow diagram, we can generally show the entire application as a single process itself. This is the first step in preparing the data flow diagram. And such a diagram where the entire application is shown as a single process is called a context diagram. It identifies all the external interfaces of the application we are developing. So context diagram is a very important step and the focus here is not so much in the details of the process itself but its external interfaces. What are the external entities it is going to interact with? What are the outputs it will produce? What are the existing data stores that it might have to interface in terms of obtaining the data or updating that data? So this is usually the starting point and it’s also called fundamental system model or the Level 0 Data Flow Diagram.

So you do the data flow diagramming in steps by successively refining the different processes, by successively decomposing those processes and in this you add more and more details. But the starting point is always the context diagram in which the focus is on the external interfaces of the software.

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Here is a simple example of a context diagram in which the whole software application that we are developing is shown as a single process or a single bubble. And we identify the users, the inputs and the outputs that the system either receives or produces. We also identify existing sources of data. These existing sources contain the data which is useful for our application but they exist outside. Now by showing it in the context diagram, we are clearly seeing that this data store will be assumed to be existing and it will not be part of our development and design effort. That is the boundary. We are defining clearly the boundary of the software that we want to develop. We also identify other external sources which may be necessary for interfacing our application with other applications. So these may be messages or they may be data stores which will be interfacing with external systems. So context diagram is a very important first step in preparing the data flow diagram.

After we have done the context diagram, we now decompose the process into its sub-processes. So here is the process decomposition now coming in the picture. When we do this, we replace the process by its constituents of processes. In this we may reveal additional data stores or additional external interfaces. S we are adding now more and more details. And we also develop some kind of a simple numbering system through which we can readily show the constituent processes of a process which we have decomposed. So generally we use the decimal numbering system. So if we are decomposing process one, then the sub-processes of that would be numbered as 1.1, 1.2, etc. exit. This is for ease of understanding the decomposition relationship between the processes.

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