Full text of What It’s Like to Teach in North Korea by Suki Kim at TED Talks…
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In 2011, during the final six months of Kim Jong-Il’s life, I lived undercover in North Korea.
I was born and raised in South Korea, their enemy. I live in America, their other enemy.
Since 2002, I had visited North Korea a few times. And I had come to realize that to write about it with any meaning, or to understand the place beyond the regime’s propaganda, the only option was total immersion. So I posed as a teacher and a missionary at an all-male university in Pyongyang.
The Pyongyang University of Science and Technology was founded by Evangelical Christians who cooperate with the regime to educate the sons of the North Korean elite, without proselytizing, which is a capital crime there. The students were 270 young men, expected to be the future leaders of the most isolated and brutal dictatorship in existence. When I arrived, they became my students.
2011 was a special year, marking the 100th anniversary of the birth of North Korea’s original Great Leader, Kim Il-Sung. To celebrate the occasion, the regime shut down all universities, and sent students off to the fields to build the DPRK’s much-heralded ideal as the world’s most powerful and prosperous nation. My students were the only ones spared from that fate.
North Korea is a gulag posing as a nation. Everything there is about the Great Leader. Every book, every newspaper article, every song, every TV program — there is just one subject. The flowers are named after him, the mountains are carved with his slogans. Every citizen wears the badge of the Great Leader at all times. Even their calendar system begins with the birth of Kim Il-Sung.
The school was a heavily guarded prison, posing as a campus. Teachers could only leave on group outings accompanied by an official minder. Even then, our trips were limited to sanctioned national monuments celebrating the Great Leader. The students were not allowed to leave the campus, or communicate with their parents. Their days were meticulously mapped out, and any free time they had was devoted to honoring their Great Leader. Lesson plans had to meet the approval of North Korean staff, every class was recorded and reported on, every room was bugged, and every conversation, overheard. Every blank space was covered with the portraits of Kim Il-Sung and Kim Jong-Il, like everywhere else in North Korea.
We were never allowed to discuss the outside world. As students of science and technology, many of them were computer majors but they did not know the existence of the Internet. They had never heard of Mark Zuckerberg or Steve Jobs. Facebook, Twitter — none of those things would have meant a thing. And I could not tell them.
I went there looking for truth. But where do you even start when an entire nation’s ideology, my students’ day-to-day realities, and even my own position at the universities, were all built on lies?
I started with a game. We played Truth and Lie. A volunteer would write a sentence on the chalkboard, and the other students had to guess whether it was a truth or a lie. Once a student wrote, “I visited China last year on vacation,” and everyone shouted, “Lie!” They all knew this wasn’t possible. Virtually no North Korean is allowed to leave the country. Even traveling within their own country requires a travel pass.
I had hoped that this game would reveal some truth about my students, because they lie so often and so easily, whether about the mythical accomplishments of their Great Leader, or the strange claim that they cloned a rabbit as fifth graders. The difference between truth and lie seemed at times hazy to them. It took me a while to understand the different types of lies; they lie to shield their system from the world, or they were taught lies, and were just regurgitating them. Or, at moments, they lied out of habit. But if all they have ever known were lies, how could we expect them to be otherwise?
Next, I tried to teach them essay writing. But that turned out to be nearly impossible. Essays are about coming up with one’s own thesis, and making an evidence-based argument to prove it. These students, however, were simply told what to think, and they obeyed. In their world, critical thinking was not allowed.
I also gave them the weekly assignment of writing a personal letter, to anybody. It took a long time, but eventually some of them began to write to their mothers, their friends, their girlfriends. Although those were just homework, and would never reach their intended recipients, my students slowly began to reveal their true feelings in them. They wrote that they were fed up with the sameness of everything. They were worried about their future. In those letters, they rarely ever mentioned their Great Leader.
I was spending all of my time with these young men. We all ate meals together, played basketball together. I often called them gentlemen, which made them giggle. They blushed at the mention of girls. And I came to adore them. And watching them open up even in the tiniest of ways was deeply moving.