Rupert Sheldrake, a biologist and author, discusses The Extended Mind: Recent Experimental Evidence at Google Tech Talks conference. This event took placed on September 2, 2008. Read the full transcript below.
Listen to the MP3 Audio here: Rupert Sheldrake on The Extended Mind Recent Experimental Evidence
Announcer: Our speaker today is Rupert Sheldrake, an innovative and controversial biologist, author of over 75 technical papers and books –very interesting, I must say, most recently, “The Sense of Being Stared At.” He studied at Cambridge, and is director of the Perrott-Warrick Project there, funded by Trinity College. And he is going to speak about some research he’s doing on that project about extraordinary or unexplained abilities of humans and animals. So, there’s going to be a 45-minute talk, followed by 15 minutes for questions and answers.
Let’s welcome, Rupert Sheldrake.
Rupert Sheldrake – Author
Okay. Thank you, I’m talking about the Extended Mind, the mind beyond the brain. And I’m going to start with a few reflections on the nature of consciousness. We don’t know how consciousness works or what it does. This is one of the things which in science is sometimes called The Hard problem, because there’s no known obvious reason why we should be conscious at all, or exactly how the mind works. And consciousness study is one of the most exciting frontier areas of science today.
What I’m going to suggest is that our minds are field-like, that they’re not confined to the inside of the head. They spread out into environment around us. Because our minds are extended beyond our brains, they can have effects at a distance which are surprising from the conventional point of view and helped to make sense of a range of controversial phenomena, like telepathy.
So, the first point is that, the question of “Where is the mind located?” I’m suggesting that minds are field-like, can spread out beyond brains in a similar way to the way that magnetic fields spread out beyond magnets, cellphone fields spread out beyond cellphones and the Earth’s gravitational field stretches out far beyond the Earth. These fields are within and around the material systems they organize, and I think the same is true of our brains.
The place where this becomes easiest to understand is in terms of vision, and the question of how vision works. Most people think they know how vision works, and science has told us a great deal about it. And what we know is that when you see me standing here now for example, light is reflected from me, goes through the electromagnetic field of inverted images of pair on your retinas, changes happen in the cone cells and then impulses travel up the optic nerves and various bits of your brain become active. That’s what happens during physical side of perception.
There are two problems here. First of all, there’s no explanation in this as to why you should be conscious at all, that’s simply not explained by describing what happens in the nervous system. And the second problem is that, according to the standard view, all this is supposed to be happening inside your brain. If the mind is nothing but the brain, which is the usual assumption within the academic and medical worlds, mental activity is nothing but brain activity, everything you’re seeing is inside your head. Somehow, miraculously in an unexplained way, changes in your nervous cells lead to a kind of virtual reality display inside your head, by which you see what’s going on in the world.
So, right now, for example, somewhere inside your head, there’s a little virtual Rupert, somewhere in your brain and you think it’s right out here, whereas I’m standing here talking. If you look at the sky, the sky you’re seeing is an image of the sky inside your head. So, your skull must be beyond the sky. A recent paper in a leading consciousness journal was called, “Is your skull beyond the sky?” Because if the sky you see is inside your head, the skull must be beyond the sky. The answer of the author was yes, my answer would be no. In fact, I suggest the very common sense view. A view that is so simple, it’s hard to grasp that when you’re seeing something, the image you’re seeing is where it seems to be. Your image of me is located not inside your head but right here. It’s in your mind, produced by your mind but it’s not in your brain. It’s projected out. And I’m suggesting our whole visual experience of the world is projected out to where it seems to be. Our minds are projecting out all that we see.
So, vision is a two-way process, light coming in and the outward projection of images. This, I suggest, happens through what I call the perceptual field, which is a kind of morphic field, another category of field that is part of a theory I’ve developed which I don’t have time to explain today. But it’s a field phenomenon and in a sense, your mind reaches out to touch what you’re looking at. The image of what you are seeing is superimposed on what’s really there. Sometimes it’s not, as in a mirror reflection when you have a virtual image or an illusion or a hallucination but usually it is.