Chris Lonsdale – Managing Director, Chris Lonsdale & Associates
The people in the back, can you hear me clearly? Okay, good.
Have you ever held a question in mind for so long that it becomes part of how you think? Maybe even part of who you are as a person?
Well I’ve had a question in my mind for many, many years and that is: How can you speed up learning? Now, this is an interesting question because if you speed up learning, you can spend less time at school. And if you learn really fast, you probably wouldn’t have to go to school at all.
Now, when I was young, school was sort of okay but…I found quite often that school got in the way of learning so I had this question in mind: How do you learn faster? And this began when I was very, very young, when I was 11 years old, I wrote a letter to researchers in the Soviet Union, asking about hypnopaedia, this is sleep-learning, where you get a tape recorder, you put it beside your bed and it turns on in the middle of the night when you’re sleeping, and you’re supposed to be learning from this. A good idea. Unfortunately it doesn’t work.
But hypnopaedia did open the doors to research in other areas and we’ve had incredible discoveries about learning that began with that first question. I went on from there to become passionate about psychology and I have been involved in psychology in many different ways for the rest of my life up until this point.
In 1981, I took myself to China and I decided that I was going to be native level in Chinese inside two years. Now, you need to understand that in 1981, everybody thought Chinese was really, really difficult and that a Westerner could study for 10 years or more and never really get very good at it. And I also went in with a different idea which was: taking all of the conclusions from psychological research up to that point and applying them to the learning process.
What was really cool was that in six months I was fluent in Mandarin Chinese and it took a little bit longer to get up to native. But I looked around and I saw all of these people from different countries struggling terribly with Chinese, I saw Chinese people struggling terribly to learn English and other languages.
And so my question got refined down to: How can you help a normal adult learn a new language quickly, easily and effectively? Now this is a really, really important question in today’s world. We have massive challenges with environment, we have massive challenges with social dislocation, with wars, all sorts of things going on. And if we can’t communicate, we’re really going to have difficulty solving these problems. So we need to be able to speak each other’s languages, this is really, really important.
The question then is: How do you do that? Well, it’s actually really easy. You look around for people who can already do it, you look for situations where it’s already working and then you identify the principles and apply them. It’s called modelling and I’ve been looking at language learning and modelling language learning for about 15 to 20 years now. And my conclusion, my observation from this is that any adult can learn a second language to fluency inside six months.
Now when I say this, most people think I’m crazy, this is not possible. So let me remind everybody of the history of human progress, it’s all about expanding our limits.
In 1950, everybody believed that running one mile in four minutes was impossible, and then Roger Bannister did it in 1956 and from there it’s got shorter and shorter. 100 years ago everybody believed that heavy stuff doesn’t fly. Except it does and we all know this.
How does heavy stuff fly? We reorganize the material using principles that we have learned from observing nature, birds in this case. And today we’ve gone even further… We’ve gone even further, so you can fly a car. You can buy one of these for a couple $100,000. We now have cars in the world that fly. And there’s a different way to fly which we’ve learned from squirrels. So all you need to do is copy what a flying squirrel does, build a suit called a wing suit and off you go, you can fly like a squirrel.
Now most people, a lot of people, I wouldn’t say everybody but a lot of people think they can’t draw. However there are some key principles, five principles, that you can apply to learning to draw and you can actually learn to draw in five days. So, if you draw like this, you learn these principles for five days and apply them and after five days you can draw something like this.
Now I know this is true because that was my first drawing and after five days of applying these principles that was what I was able to do. And I looked at this and I went: “Wow, so that’s how I look like when I’m concentrating so intensely that my brain is exploding.”
So, anybody can learn to draw in five days and in the same way, with the same logic, anybody can learn a second language in six months. How? There are five principles and seven actions. There may be a few more but these are absolutely core.
And before I get into those I just want to talk about two myths, I want to dispel two myths. The first is that you need talent. Let me tell you about Zoe. Zoe came from Australia, went to Holland, was trying to learn Dutch, struggling extremely, extremely… a great deal and finally people were saying: “You’re completely useless, you’re not talented, give up, “you’re a waste of time” and she was very, very depressed. And then she came across these five principles, she moved to Brazil and she applied them and in six months she was fluent in Portuguese, so talent doesn’t matter.
People also think that immersion in a new country is the way to learn a language. But look around Hong Kong, look at all the westerners who’ve been here for 10 years, who don’t speak a word of Chinese. Look at all the Chinese living in America, Britain, Australia, Canada have been there 10, 20 years and they don’t speak any English. Immersion per se does not work. Why? Because a drowning man cannot learn to swim.
When you don’t speak a language, you’re like a baby. And if you drop yourself into a context which is all adults talking about stuff over your head, you won’t learn.
So, what are the five principles that you need to pay attention to?
First: the four words, attention, meaning, relevance and memory, and these interconnect in very, very important ways. Especially when you’re talking about learning. Come with me on a journey through a forest. You go on a walk through a forest and you see something like this… Little marks on a tree, maybe you pay attention, maybe you don’t. You go another 50 meters and you see this… You should be paying attention. Another 50 meters, if you haven’t been paying attention, you see this…And at this point, you’re paying attention. And you’ve just learned that this…is important, it’s relevant because it means this, and anything that is related, any information related to your survival is stuff that you’re going to pay attention to and therefore you’re going to remember it.
If it’s related to your personal goals, then you’re going to pay attention to it. If it’s relevant, you’re going to remember it. So, the first rule, first principle for learning a language is focus on language content that is relevant to you. Which brings us to tools.
We master tools by using tools and we learn tools the fastest when they are relevant to us. So let me share a story. A keyboard is a tool. Typing Chinese a certain way, there are methods for this. That’s a tool.
I had a colleague many years ago who went to night school; Tuesday night, Thursday night, two hours each time, practicing at home, she spent nine months, and she did not learn to type Chinese. And one night we had a crisis. We had 48 hours to deliver a training manual in Chinese. And she got the job, and I can guarantee you in 48 hours, she learned to type Chinese because it was relevant, it was meaningful, it was important, she was using a tool to create value.
So the second principle for learning a language is to use your language as a tool to communicate right from day one. As a kid does. When I first arrived in China, I didn’t speak a word of Chinese, and on my second week, I got to take a train ride overnight. I spent eight hours sitting in the dining car talking to one of the guards on the train, he took an interest in me for some reason, and we just chatted all night in Chinese and he was drawing pictures and making movements with his hands and facial expressions and piece by piece by piece I understood more and more.
But what was really cool, was two weeks later, when people were talking Chinese around me, I was understanding some of this and I hadn’t even made any effort to learn that. What had happened, I’d absorbed it that night on the train, which brings us to the third principle.
When you first understand the message, then you will acquire the language unconsciously. And this is really, really well documented now, it’s something called comprehensible input. There’s 20 or 30 years of research on this, Stephen Krashen, a leader in the field, has published all sorts of these different studies and this is just from one of them. The purple bars show the scores on different tests for language. The purple people were people who had learned by grammar and formal study, the green ones are the ones who learned by comprehensible input. So, comprehension works.