Home » Stan Tatkin: Relationships Are Hard, But Why? at TEDxKC Conference (Transcript)

Stan Tatkin: Relationships Are Hard, But Why? at TEDxKC Conference (Transcript)

Stan Tatkin

Here is the full transcript of Stan Tatkin, developer of PACT — A Psychobiological Approach to Couple Therapy — on Relationships Are Hard, But Why? at TEDxKC Conference.

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Relationships are difficult. Everybody knows that. Most people think it’s because of money, sex, kids, work, or who picks up the socks.

Some people think it’s because we’re just not right for each other, or we don’t have enough in common. Look, it’s not just you, or him, or her. There’s actually nothing more difficult on the planet than another person.

Think about that. We’re all difficult. We all come to each new relationship wanting easy, but we also come with our fair share of unresolved painful experiences from previous relationships.

Between love and work, love is by far, more complex and challenging. Now, much of the reason for this is based in our automatic neurobiological reflexes, so let me explain.

Let’s start with that fancy neocortex of yours, the high cortical areas. For simplicity sake, let’s call them your ambassadors. Your ambassadors are very smart, deliberate, but slow, and they’re very expensive to run. They’re really good at planning, predicting, organizing, languaging. And if I may be frank, they’re really good at making shit up.

When you think of logic and reason, think ambassadors. Now, the subcortical areas of your brain, let’s call them your primitives. They’re very fast, memory-based, automatic, and very cheap to run. They’re involved in love and sex, but also threat detection by scanning for dangerous faces, voices, gestures, movements, as well as dangerous words and phrases.

When you think fight or flight, think primitives. Now, thanks to your primitives, your day is 99% fully automatic. Your ambassadors love novelty, but they have to offload newness to your primitives in order to conserve resources. You can’t possibly run your day with your ambassadors in full gear — you would fry your brain.

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So the primitives use something called procedural memory, otherwise known as body memory, and it works like this: You learn to ride a bike, and in the beginning, your primitives and ambassadors are in full gear to learn this new skill. But very soon, your primitives are going to automate bike riding without much need for your ambassadors. It goes into procedural memory. Pretty neat, huh?

So now you fall in love with someone, and again, your brain is lit up — you want to know everything about them. You want to touch them, taste them, smell them, you can’t get enough of them. You are high on drugs. Nature’s drugs, not those. Dopamine for wanting more; noradrenaline for focus and attention; testosterone for you know what — and a distinct drop in serotonin so you can perseverate and obsess. You’re neurochemically addicted.

So you spend all your time together for weeks and months and you get serious. And this is when the fun begins — because very soon, your brain is going to automate this new person and theirs is going to automate you. This is supposed to happen, it’s what the brain does in order to function. It’ll make your relationship feel a lot easier and it will lead you to your first really big mistakes — because you think you know each other already, so you stop paying attention, you stop being fully present. Your primitives are relying on procedural memory to run your relationship, and that memory includes everyone and everything of an emotional importance in your life. And that primitive brain of yours is going to read your partner’s thoughts, feelings, and intentions through that memory lens.

So it’s kind of like this: “Why are you giving me that look?”

“I – I didn’t give you any look.”

“Why are you using that tone of voice with me?”

“What tone?”

“What! Stop it!”


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That’s the sound of two nervous systems misfiring, and that is our nature. And that will happen, and it will be a problem if you don’t understand your automatic brain.

Now as a couple’s therapist, I can tell you that fighting in and of itself is inevitable. There is no relationship without conflict. In fact, if you are a conflict avoider, you will appear threatening to your partner. The real problem isn’t that you fight. It’s when you do, one or both of you threatens to leave the relationship. A relationship can survive fights, but what it cannot survive is loss of safety and security. Communication, memory, perception — all error-prone.

Human communication, even on a good day, is terrible. We’re mostly misunderstanding each other much of the time. When we feel good, we don’t care that much, and when we don’t feel good, we care a whole lot. And when stress goes up, human communication gets a whole lot worse.

Memory is unreliable. Memory is faulty, folks, and in a fight for whose memory is right, you’re probably both wrong. Your perceptions are like fun house mirrors. Your perceptions are constantly being altered by your state of mind and your memory. They’re constantly playing tricks on you.

If we assume that our communication, our memory, our perception is the real truth, that’s hubris, and that will get us into trouble.

Now, before I go on, I want to be clear about threat. If you’re in an abusive relationship, you must get out. I’m not talking about big T threat; only small T threat, the kind that we have to deal with day in and day out as we bump up against each other, and we fight.

But why do our fights spin out of control? Well, it’s because real time is too fast, and when we feel threatened, we act, and react with our primitives. Our ambassadors actually have no idea how we got into this place. It’s what makes shit up! “I’m right, dammit, and here’s what sounds really good to prove my point.” And you really have no idea what you’re talking about but you sound so confident.

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I want to get to the fun part here. Since all of you literally carry around your own neurobiology lab with you, wherever you go. Here’s a few experiments you can run in the comfort of your own home. The next time a relationship moment turns tense, change your position: go eye-to-eye and face-to-face. Notice what happens.

And by the way, if you tend to fight a lot while driving in the car, it’s because you’re side-to-side and glance — a glance is a threat trigger, that’s why you should never fight in the car, or on the phone, or while emailing, or while texting. We’re visual animals, and we need our eyes in order to regulate each other’s nervous systems.

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