Sarah T. Stewart-Mukhopadhyay is an American planetary scientist known for studying planet formation, planetary geology, and materials science. She is a professor at the University of California, Davis in the Earth and Planetary Sciences Department.
Sarah T. Stewart – TED Talk TRANSCRIPT
Nobody likes to make a mistake. And I made a whopping one.
And figuring out what I did wrong led to a discovery that completely changes the way we think about the Earth and Moon.
I’m a planetary scientist, and my favorite thing to do is smash planets together. In my lab, I can shoot at rocks using cannons like this one.
In my experiments, I can generate the extreme conditions during planet formation. And with computer models, I can collide whole planets together to make them grow, or I can destroy them.
I want to understand how to make the Earth and the Moon and why the Earth is so different from other planets.
The leading idea for the origin of the Earth and Moon is called the “giant impact theory.” The theory states that a Mars-sized body struck the young Earth, and the Moon formed from the debris disc around the planet. The theory can explain so many things about the Moon, but it has a huge flaw: it predicts that the Moon is mostly made from the Mars-sized planet, that the Earth and the Moon are made from different materials. But that’s not what we see.
The Earth and the Moon are actually like identical twins. The genetic code of planets is written in the isotopes of the elements. The Earth and Moon have identical isotopes. That means that the Earth and Moon are made from the same materials. It’s really strange that the Earth and the Moon are twins.
All of the planets are made from different materials, so they all have different isotopes, they all have their own genetic code. No other planetary bodies have the same genetic relationship. Only the Earth and Moon are twins.
When I started working on the origin of the Moon, there were scientists that wanted to reject the whole idea of the giant impact. They didn’t see any way for this theory to explain the special relationship between the Earth and the Moon.
We were all trying to think of new ideas. The problem was, there weren’t any better ideas. All of the other ideas had even bigger flaws. So we were trying to rescue the giant impact theory. A young scientist in my group suggested that we try changing the spin of the giant impact.
Maybe making the Earth spin faster could mix more material and explain the Moon. The Mars-sized impactor had been chosen because it could make the Moon and make the length of Earth’s day. People really liked that part of the model.
But what if something else determined the length of Earth’s day? Then there would be many more possible giant impacts that could make the Moon. I was curious about what could happen, so I tried simulating faster-spinning giant impacts, and I found that it is possible to make a disc out of the same mixture of materials as the planet.
We were pretty excited. Maybe this was the way to explain the Moon. The problem is, we also found that that’s just not very likely. Most of the time, the disc is different from the planet, and it looked like making our Moon this way would be an astronomical coincidence, and it was just hard for everyone to accept the idea that the Moon’s special connection to Earth was an accident.
The giant impact theory was still in trouble, and we were still trying to figure out how to make the Moon.
Then came the day when I realized my mistake. My student and I were looking at the data from these fast-spinning giant impacts. On that day, we weren’t actually thinking about the Moon, we were looking at the planet. The planet gets super-hot and partially vaporized from the energy of the impact.
But the data didn’t look like a planet. It looked really strange. The planet was weirdly connected to the disc. I got that super-excited feeling when something really wrong might be something really interesting.
In all of my calculations, I had assumed there was a planet with a separate disc around it. Calculating what was in the disc was how we tested whether an impact could make the Moon.
But it didn’t look that simple anymore. We were making the mistake of thinking that a planet was always going to look like a planet. On that day, I knew that a giant impact was making something completely new. I’ve had eureka moments. This was not one of them.
I really didn’t know what was going on. I had this strange, new object in front of me and the challenge to try and figure it out. What do you do when faced with the unknown? How do you even start? We questioned everything: What is a planet? When is a planet no longer a planet anymore? We played with new ideas.