Following is the transcript of Dan Pink’s talk: The Puzzle of Motivation at TED Talk Conference.
Book(s) by the speaker:
Daniel H. Pink – Author
I need to make a confession at the outset here.
A little over 20 years ago, I did something that I regret, something that I’m not particularly proud of. Something that, in many ways, I wish no one would ever know, but that here I feel kind of obliged to reveal.
In the late 1980s, in a moment of youthful indiscretion, I went to law school. Now, in America, law is a professional degree. You get your university degree, then you go on to law school. When I got to law school, I didn’t do very well. To put it mildly, I didn’t do very well. I, in fact, graduated in the part of my law school class that made the top 90% possible. Thank you. I never practiced law a day in my life; I pretty much wasn’t allowed to.
But today, against my better judgment, against the advice of my own wife, I want to try to dust off some of those legal skills — what’s left of those legal skills. I don’t want to tell you a story. I want to make a case. I want to make a hard-headed, evidence-based, dare I say lawyerly case, for rethinking how we run our businesses.
So, ladies and gentlemen of the jury, take a look at this. This is called the candle problem. Some of you might have seen this before. It’s created in 1945 by a psychologist named Karl Duncker. Karl Duncker created this experiment that is used in a whole variety of experiments in behavioral science. And here’s how it works.
Suppose I’m the experimenter. I bring you into a room. I give you a candle, some thumbtacks and some matches. And I say to you, “Your job is to attach the candle to the wall so the wax doesn’t drip onto the table.”
Now what would you do? Many people begin trying to thumbtack the candle to the wall. Doesn’t work. Somebody – some people and I saw somebody kind of make the motion over here — some people have a great idea where they light the match, melt the side of the candle, try to adhere it to the wall. It’s an awesome idea. Doesn’t work.
And eventually, after five or ten minutes, most people figure out the solution, which you can see here. The key is to overcome what’s called functional fixedness. You look at that box and you see it only as a receptacle for the tacks. But it can also have this other function, as a platform for the candle. The candle problem.